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英文标点符号怎么用 最常用错的5个英文标点符号

来源:香港马会下注发布者:yh_zhang时间:2017-07-14 11:42:18


  标点符号作为人文的重要组成部分之一,一直是众多文学使用者所推敲的一部分。而标点符号的使用作为一门艺术,它也同样文字使用更为优美,虽然我们在中文的标点符号的使用有着自己的习惯,但在跨文化交流当中,学会使用其他国家的语言文字标点符号也是尤其重要的。下面我们来看看在英文当中,一些常见的标点符号又要如何使用。

  标点符号

  1. Possessive apostrophes

  名词所有格符号

  名词所有格符号是很难,它以几种不同的方式放在单词后边。那么,我们到底该怎样去使用它呢?

  Let’s start simple. For a singular noun, such as dog, you add an apostrophe plus s to the end: The dog’s collar was covered in mud.

  我们这里从发一个简单的例子开始。对于一个单数名词而言,例如dog,应该在dog后加上名词所有格符号和字母s:那只狗的项圈被埋在了土里。

  For a plural noun, such as elephants, you add an apostrophe to the end: The elephants’ parade was stoped by rain.

  对于复数名词而言,例如elephants,应该在elephants后加上名词所有格符号:大象的队伍因大雨而停止前进。

  For a plural noun that doesn’t end with s, you add an apostrophe plus s to the end: The children’s party went on as planned.

  对于不以s结尾的复数名词,应该在盖茨后面加上名词所有格符号和s:孩子们的聚会如期进行。

   The place it gets tricky is with personal names, such as Charles and Ulysses, which already end in an s sound. In those cases, you generally add an apostrophe plus s if you naturally pronounce an extra s when you say the word out loud: Charles’s new tie is fantastic. If you don’t pronounce an extra s when you say the word, then leave it out: Ulysses’ presentation is set for Monday.

  人名后面名词所有格符号的位置可能会令人困惑,例如:以s结尾的Charles和Ulysses。在这种情况下,当你大声发音的时候,如果你额外发s音,应该在名词所有格符号后加上s:查理斯的新领带漂亮极了。如果当你读这个词的时候,s不发音,那么名词所有格后面的s省略:尤里西斯的演讲定于周一。

  2. Semicolons

  分号  The central task of the semicolon is to mark a break that is stronger than a comma but not as final as a period or full stop. That sounds easy enough, but it can be hard to tell when you should be linking two clauses with a semicolon rather than simply separating them into two sentences.

  分号的主要作用就是标志着停顿,分号所表示的停顿比逗号所表示的停顿更加强烈,但是不是作为一个句号来结束句子。这听起来很简单,但是当你使用分号连接两个从句而不是仅仅把它们分成两个句子的时候,情况就变得复杂了。

  Typically, you want to use a semicolon when two main clauses balance each other and are too closely linked to be made into separate sentences, as in these two examples:

  很明显,当两个从句彼此平衡联系紧密不能够被分成两个独立的句子的时候,你就应该使用分号了。就像这两个例子:

  The road runs through a beautiful wooded valley; the railway line follows it.

  这条路穿过一条树木繁茂的山谷;铁路线紧随这条山谷。

  Erik did not give me your keys; he gave me mine.

  艾瑞克不给我你的钥匙;他把我的钥匙给我了。

  You can also use a semicolon to mark a stronger division in a sentence that already has commas: The study showed the following: 76% of surveyed firms monitor employee Web-surfing activities, with 65% blocking access to unauthorized Internet locations; over one-third of the firms monitor employee computer keystrokes; half reported storing and reviewing employee emails; 57% monitor employee telephone conduct, including the inappropriate use of voicemail.

  你可以使用分号在一个有逗号的句子里表示一个更加强烈的停顿:调查显示如下:76%受调查的公司监督员工上网活动,65%会阻碍不合法的网址;超过三分之一的公司对员工进行键盘监听;据报告一半的公司还会存储并检查员工的email;57%的公司会对员工进行电话监听,包括对语音信箱的不合理使用。

  3. Colons

  冒号

  The best way to differentiate the colon from the semicolon is that where the semicolon provides a strong division in a sentence, the colon provides a sense of forward motion.

  最好区分冒号和分号的该方式就是看他们的位置,分号在句中提供一个强烈的停顿,冒号在句中提供一种进一步的解释。

  There are three main uses of the colon:

  分号主要有三种用法:

  Between two main clauses in cases where the second clause explains or follows from the first, e.g. That is the secret to winning the game: have some patience.

  在两个从句之间,第二个句子解释或者紧随第一个句子。例如,这是赢得比赛的秘诀:要有耐心。

  Introducing a list, e.g. The film was criticized for several reasons: a weak script, stiff acting, and poor special effects.

  介绍一个清单。例如,这部电影由于几个原因而受到批评:一个疲软的剧本,僵硬的表演以及较差的表演效果。

  Before a quotation, and sometimes direction speech, e.g. The poster read: Show is on 4 April’.

  在一句引用前面,有时候在直接引语前面。例如,海报上写着:节目于四月四号上映。

  4. Hyphens

  连字符

  The principal purpose of the hyphen is linking words and parts of words. This means that it appears in a wide variety of situations, linking all types of words. Rather than pick out all of the possible appearances of the hyphen in everyday writing, we will focus on one that people frequently get wrong: compound adjectives.

  连字符的主要用法是连接词与词或者一部分词。这意味着连字符出现在很多情况下,连接各种各样的词。不是在日常的写作中找到所有的连字符,而是集中精力在那些人们频繁出错的地方:复合形容词。

  Compound adjectives are made up of a noun + an adjective, a noun + a participle, or an adjective + a participle. Many compound adjectives should be hyphenated. For example,warm-hearted.

  复合形容词由名词+形容词,名词+分词或者形容词+分词组成。许多复合形容词由连字符连接。例如,热心的。

  Compound adjectives get tricky once a phrase or the word well gets involved. In these cases, up-to-date and well-known, for instance, you should use a hyphen when the compound comes before the noun (up-to-date security system and well-known chiropractor), but not when the compound comes after (this software is up to date and this chimpanzee is well known). Similarly, centuries should be hyphenated when used as adjectives (She is one of the best twentieth-century writers) but not when used as a noun (These paintings date from the seventeenth century).

  当涉及到短语和字词的时候复合形容词就变得复杂起来。例如,在这些例子里,up-to-date和well-known,当复合词用于名词之前要使用连字符(现代化的安全系统和著名的脊骨神经科医生),但是当复合形容词用于名词后就不能使用连字符了(这个软件是现代化的,这个大猩猩十分有名)。同理,centuries用作形容词时要使用连字符(她是20世纪最好的作家之一),但是centuries用作名词的时候,不能使用连字符(这些画可以追溯至17世纪)。

  5. Dashes

  破折号

  The hyphen’s slightly longer cousin, the dash is another popular punctuation mark that not everyone is sure how to use.

  把连字符加长一点就是破折号,破折号也是一种十分受欢迎的标点符号,但不是每一个人都知道怎样使用。

  In formal writing, the dash is used to mark off information or ideas that are not essential to an understanding of the rest of the sentence. For example, you might see: Once I have a free afternoon — I’ve been quite busy — I will meet you for lunch.

  在正式的写作中,破折号用来划分信息和意见,而这些信息和意见对于理解句子不是很重要。例如,一旦我下午有时间—我一直很忙— 我就会和你吃午饭。

  Even though dashes are common in informal writing, such as personal emails or blogs, it’s best to use them sparingly when writing formally.

  即使破折号在非正式的写作中也很常见,如个人邮件和微博,当正式写作的时候最好偶尔使用破折号。

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